Debugging the more_categories plugin for Pelican

I've realised that one of the plugins I use to make this blog is not working correctly. I use the more_categories plugin to:

  1. add subcategories
  2. assign multiple categories to articles.

Subcategories aren't working and Pelican thinks each article just has categories than contain forward slashes.

In his "Powerful Python" emails, Aaron Maxwell recommends looking at the source code for popular python libraries to see how really good Python is written, and how talented developers write code and solve problems.

This is a good opportunity to look at the code that powers the plugin and see if if I can:

  1. Understand the source code
  2. Locate the source of the problem
  3. Fix the problem

I don't know if Pelican is amazingly good quality or not, I get the feeling it could do with more developer resources, but I've got a real reason and motivation to look at the underlying code so I'm going to give it a shot.

The documentation is sparse which doesn't help, I get the impression that whoever wrote it feels like Pelican is simple and it's obvious what's going on 1. It's not obvious to me.

Pelican Plugins

Every plugin has to have a register() function, here it is for the more-categories plugin:

def register():

I understand the idea of signals from Django, and generators are discussed a bit in the documentation. So what else is happening...

As I write down my understanding of the plugin, I'm aware that my understanding is definitely incomplete and probably wrong. I hope that as I progress I will see the mistakes in what I've already written.

get_categories() is called first, and it takes two arguments, generator and metadata. The entire function is 3 lines so here it is:

def get_categories(generator, metadata):
    categories = text_type(metadata.get('category')).split(',')
    metadata['categories'] = [Category(name, generator.settings) for name in categories]
    metadata['category'] = metadata['categories'][0]

It looks like it gets the category from the metadata for each article. Presumably by the time this function is called the articles have already been parsed and a metadata object has already been created and populated with metadata about the articles, including categories.

The first row of get_categories() splits up the categories if multiple categories are listed. metadata must be a dictionary, and there must be a metadata dict for each article, otherwise you couldn't just get get the value assoiciated with the dictionary key and then split the string on commas.

This means that this function is called once for each article.

I don't know what text_type does yet. Maybe it ensures that the output is always a string. It's imported from six which I remember seeing being a dependecy of some other packages.

.. Having checked the documentation for six it looks like I was right - it represents unicode textual data in both python2 and python3. Pelican was originally written in Python2 I guess.

Next step is to write a new key-value pair to the metadata dictionary for each article. This plugin adds functionality to python by enabling categories and not just a category for each article. It seems clear that adding a categories key to the metadata dict is an obvious way to do this. The value for the categories key is a list where each item is an instance of the Category class. This class is instantiated using two arguments, name which is the string from the previous row, and generator.settings which is currently not understood.

.. printing the contents of generator.settings shows that its a dictionary of all the settings. Easily assumed and good to confirm.

I'll dig into the Category class in a moment, but first lets quickly cover the last row of the function. The category attribute of the articles metadata is simply updated with the first item in the categories list (categories must be a list because it can be indexed.)

class Category():

This class is the only class defined by the plugin (which is only 96 lines of code). It has 6 methods, 5 of them are decorated, and it has no constants.

The decorators are property [3], _name.setter [1] and [1]. URLWrapper is imported from pelican.urlwrappers and I don't know what that does beyond "wrapping URLs".


Decorators are functions that takes methods or functions as inputs. Using property along with setter decorators lets a class have a property assigned to it whilst ensuring that arbitrary conditions or logic is upheld. If the @property decorator is over a method called foo, then there would need to be a decorator called foo.setter on a method somewhere in the class.

That doesn't seem entirely right though, because in our Category class, we have a @property decorator over a _name method, and also a @_name.setter decorator over another method called _name. But the other methods with @property decorators (slug and ancestors) do not have any associated setter decorators or methods.

The setter for _name seems to create parent categories if the string contains slashes:

def _name(self, val):
    if '/' in val:
        parentname, val = val.rsplit('/', 1)
        self.parent = self.__class__(parentname, self.settings)
        self.parent = None
    self.shortname = val.strip()

Here, self.parent becomes an instance of the category class, that is instantiated using parentname and self.settings. This is recursive to however many levels of subcategories are specified.

The ancestors and as_dict methods seem more confusing. ancestors isn't called or mentioned within the class definition, but is called from the create_categories function which is called after the get_categories function returns. I don't understand why it needs an @property decorator though.

The class inherits from URLWrapper so that is probably the next best place to look... Indeed, looking at the definition of URLWrapper shows that the as_dict method is overriding the definition in the base class.


  1. I guess it's the "curse of knowledge"