3 Different Types Of Programming Problems

Three categories of problem

Last year when I was creating moneybar and pippip there were a few problems that took much more effort to solve than all the others.

I think I could group problems into 3 buckets, based on how much time they take to solve. Type 1 takes less than 15 minutes to solve, type 2 takes between 15 and 45 minutes to solve, and type 3 takes more than 45 minutes (usualy much more).

Type 3:

When I start learning a hard thing (like web development), almost everything is in the third bucket and it's exhausting. You need to set aside big chunks of time, you need to be focussed and undistracted, calm and wide awake, and you need to be prepared for a long arduous journey.

Probably your criteria for success should be "am I dead?" because then if you're asking the question you're guaranteed to be successful and keeping morale high is necessary for success.

Type 2:

Hopefully you can make good progress understanding the basics and internalizing the relevant abstractions, and your problems quickly1 become type 2 problems. They each take from 15 to 45 minutes to solve.

Maybe this is because you know enough to break some big general problem into smaller problems (you are developing domain expertise) and your intuitions for how to solve the problem are becoming better so your first or second attempts are likely to be correct, rather than your fifth or sixth.

Knowing how to google a problem so that you get the answer you need is also a really important skill, which requires intuiting how an English speaking expert would ask the question. This isn't trivial but I don't hear people discussing this often.

When most of my coding problems are type 2, it feels like I'm learning most efficiently and when I'm most productive2.

Type 1:

After a while, the problems that need to be solved become type 1 problems. They take less than 15 minutes to solve, because:

  1. All the big problems have been solved and now you've only got smaller problems left, and
  2. Your intuitions are good and your expertise has increased and you know where to look for answers3.

Exceptional problems:

But there seems to be a consistent exception to this model.4 Let's be silly and call them type W problems. These are the problems that eat up far too many hours, and are tiring to solve, even when you are (in most other respects) an expert.

For me, these tend to relate to blob storage solutions for web apps deployed into production. I can think of several factors why this is so, and I'll describe the specifics before generalising.

When a web app runs in production, the data is not stored on the web server because the things that make a web-server cheap and efficient are not the things that make a database or a file storage bucket cheap and efficient.

Therefore they are stored somewhere else and you need some plumbing to join everything together. There are some abstractions involved to make this work easily and securely. However when developing locally, you are doing everything on your laptop. You have a web-server, relational database and file system all in the same place.

This is a big, fundamental, architectural difference between your development environment and your production environment. As a general rule, these are supposed to be as similar as possible.

These differences make it much easier to make something that works locally but doesn't work in production, and it's very hard to test if a thing will work in production without deploying it to your staging environment, which you are likely less familiar with than your local development setup.

Deploying to staging and debugging on staging is slower and harder than doing the same thing locally. Logging (and filtering) will likely be more important.

Solving exceptional problems

So how do you solve these problems quickly and efficiently? What is it about this problem that makes it so hard? Let's examine what makes the problem difficult to solve:

  1. Iteration cycles are slow - I can't test locally, I have to deploy to staging and this takes time.

  2. The problem occurs in a 'high friction' environment - its difficult to dig around and figure out what's really going on when its hidden below 3 different layers of abstraction, on a remote machine that I have limited access to via a web browser. I want to be able to dig and investigate quickly and easily using the same tools I use for writing and testing code locally. I've taken great efforts to set up my local development environment so that I can do this, and its stressful to switch to a different and more limited set of tools.

  3. The problem is the result of several things interacting at once, and I can't just test things one at a time. These things are probably very similar to the abstractions.

    Thinking clearly, learning, buidling, solving problems, all rely on being able to separate or untangle a seemingly complex situation into its component parts so that you can figure out what causes what. If you can't isolate individual concerns or components, you have a black box that is keeping you ignorant.

    In web development, customized logging is usually a good way to being isolating and exploring particular components.

Having said all that, I think the best way to solve a problem is to prevent it from occurring in the first place, but I'm not good enough to figure out how to do that, yet.


  1. on which timescale? Life is long, does it really matter if it takes 1 week or 1 month to learn something meaningful? Momentum, and having fun, is important though.

  2. from a personal growth point of view. I suppose from an employers point of view they want all problems solved fast, type 1 problems.

  3. Open the right file, google the right query (and follow the link to stack overflow), make some changes, run your static type checker and linter, run your tests, and push. Done and on to the next item.

  4. which is totally fine. It's just a mental model, and the map is not the territory